My Day of Digital Humanities begins with crack of dawn wake up, exercise, then getting ready for work.  By 715 I’m in my office ordering food for a lunch meeting.  I teach three classes today so not much DH is going to happen (update until late it turns out because I can’t stand to be left out of the fun of #DayofDH)

So far my sole contact with DH work has been to sign the time sheet for the graduate assistant I’m lucky to have.  She spent the semester digitizing periodicals for me, creating a spread sheet of citations, and now will start on the laborious process of cleaning the data.  Because she also works as an intern I spent several hours yesterday experimenting with methods for cleaning some particularly tedious multi-column pages, and then emailing her instructions.   I’m hoping to write a short part II follow up to my first post on the results of this project. 

In a quick 1.5 hour break from teaching, I’m going to work on my google doc journal for a grant funded metacognition pedagogy project.  No history but at least digital!

I wrote the above all before lunch,then taught, commuted home, hit emergency dentist repair, had family time and then spent the last two hours four hours doing the digital work to write the following, the second part of doing women’s history with digital methods.


Keyness

Keyness measures the frequency of a word in a corpus relative to is usage in another corpus.  This makes it an interesting way to compare corpora.  If we look at Chrysalis and OOB, the words with the highest keyness (higher value = more exceptional), the words that “pop” might not suprirse any scholar of women’s liberation or really any schlar familiar with feminist theory. 
Female, nature, body goddess, which initially would appear to be confirming descriptions and impressions of cultural feminism from the literature, but using digtal tools reveals a deeper story. While nature is more frequent in Chrysalis, Frequency 348, with kyness of 247, oob 215, both periodicals have the same collocate & cluster for nature “nature of.” Given the other keyness words we might expect to see “the nature of the female body” or the nature of women” or the nature of the goddess.  Using the concordance view reveals that “nature of” does not end with any of those ways.


Instead we see nature of over 94 times in forty-five items, almost a third of those that comprise that Chrysalis concordance.  Clearly the writers in this periodical liked the turn of phrase, but how are they using it? The Concordance view allows for close reading which reveals exactly how  “nature of” used and very few include references to women or female or body

I spent the past almost two hours hand cleaning and culling the following data:


1          nature of painting  Chrysalis 1 No. 1  Article 10  Pg 101.txt
2          nature of the ailment         Chrysalis 1 No. 1  Article 7  Pg 67.txt
3          nature of her is culpable {reference to Eve, critical]    Chrysalis 1 No. 1,  Article Pg 31-1.txt
4          DUPLICATE
5          nature of woman [critical of male usage] Chrysalis 1 No. 1,  Article 6  Pg 55.txt
6          nature of our work   Chrysalis 1 No. 1,  Article 6  Pg 55.txt
7          nature of the animal          Chrysalis 1 No. 1,  Article 6  Pg 55.txt
8          nature of sexual identity Chrysalis 10 No.  10 Table of Contents.txt letter from Eleanor Antin
9          nature of their activities.
            Chrysalis 10 No.  10 Table of Contents.txt letter from Eleanor Antin
10        nature of the virtues Chrysalis 10 No.  10 Table of Contents.txt letter from Eleanor Antin
11        nature of reality. Chrysalis 10 No.  10 Table of Contents.txt letter from Eleanor Antin
13        nature of the self and  “the other” Chrysalis 10 No.  10 Table of Contents.txt letter from Eleanor Antin
 14       nature of the child. Chrysalis 10 No. 10  Article 1  Pg 13.txt
15        nature of my children, cause th’ey’re all grown now and got Chrysalis 10 No. 10  Article 1  Pg 13.txt
16        nature of the genre Chrysalis 10 No. 10  Article 7  Pg 51 (1).txt
17        “the nature of rape has changed”           Chrysalis 10 No. 10  Article 7  Pg 51 (1).txt
18        nature of women’s everyday dress          Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 12  Pg 91.txt
19        nature of human      Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 16  Pg 115.txt
20        the nature of their relationship   Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 16  Pg 115.txt
21        nature of his existence      Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 16  Pg 115.txt
22        nature of the process of growth.  Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 18  Pg 131.txt
23         nature of the creation process    Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 2  Pg 11 (1).txt
24        nature of man himself, Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 2  Pg 11 (1).txt
25        nature of a culture  Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 3  Pg 19 (1).txt
26        nature of the participation            Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 3  Pg 19 (1).txt
27        nature of the thicket,          Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 6  Pg 49.txt
28        nature of oppressive female role conditioning            Chrysalis 2 No. 2  Article 7  Pg 53.txt
29        ” nature of the foundation beast”           Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 13  Pg 103.txt
30        nature of political force     Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 15  Pg 119.txt
31        nature of phenomenon     Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 2  Pg 11.txt
32        male-centered nature        Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 2  Pg 11.txt
33        nature of women and men           Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 2  Pg 11.txt
34        “nature of gender dissatisfaction” Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 2  Pg 11.txt
35        nature of the women’s movement during the rapidly changing        Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
36        nature of our human           Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
37        nature of class         Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
38        nature of their private lives          Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
39        nature of women’s  differing sexual  preferences        Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
40        nature of their life’s work; and their work         Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 6  Pg 43.txt
41        nature of female reality        Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 8  Pg 65.txt
42        nature of reality       Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 8  Pg 65.txt
43        nature of surrealism,  which  was its original and deepest   Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 8  Pg 65.txt
44        nature of this industry        Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 9  Pg 79.txt
45        nature of hair.          Chrysalis 3 No. 3,  Article 9  Pg 79.txt
46        nature of pornography        Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 1  Pg 11.txt
47        duplicate
48        “nature of the language”   Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 15  Pg 111.txt
49        the nature of the mind       Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 15  Pg 111.txt
50        nature of passion among women            Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 2  Pg 19.txt
51        nature of relationships Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 2  Pg 19.txt
52        nature of women.      Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 4  Pg 35.txt
53        nature of causing us to divide our minds. Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 4  Pg 35.txt
54        nature of “reality”   Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 9  Pg 67.txt
55        nature of Irene’s privileges.         Chrysalis 4 No. 4  Article 9  Pg 67.txt
56          nature of this world          Chrysalis 4 No. 4 (1) Table of Contents.txt
57        nature of any writing by women   Chrysalis 4 No. 4 (1) Table of Contents.txt
58        nature of  these images     Chrysalis 4 No. 4 (1) Table of Contents.txt
59        nature of the institution    Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 11  Pg 93.txt
60        nature of desire. Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 4  Pg 37.txt
61        nature of Elena’s  Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 4  Pg 37.txt
62        nature of its impact            Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 5  Pg 43.txt
63        nature of the groups          Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 5  Pg 43.txt
64        nature of the book:  Chrysalis 5 No. 5  Article 8  Pg 71.txt
65        nature of those actions      Chrysalis 6 No.  6 Table of Contents.txt
66        nature of spirit.        Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 1  Pg 9.txt
67        nature of their skills Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 1  Pg 9.txt
68        nature of feminism            Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 11  Pg 77.txt
69        nature of interrelationships among women.    Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 13  Pg 103.txt
70        nature of dialogue  Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 13  Pg 103.txt
71        nature of poetry  Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 13  Pg 103.txt
72        nature of their garments    Chrysalis 6 No. 6  Article 6  Pg 39.txt
73        nature of our moral being            Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 1  Pg 9.txt
74        nature of sexual politics    Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 1  Pg 9.txt
75        “nature of publishing “      Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 11  Pg 87.txt
76        DUPLICATE
77        the nature of women Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 12  Pg 103 (1).txt
78        nature of matter         Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 12  Pg 103 (1).txt
79        nature of matter Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 12  Pg 103 (1).txt
80        the nature of women.            Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 12  Pg 103 (1).txt
81        nature of things;         Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 12  Pg 103 (1).txt
82        nature of this knowledge Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
83        nature of consciousness.   Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
84        nature of man          Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
85        nature of man Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
86        nature of the relationship Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
87        nature of the journal          Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 4  Pg 39.txt
88        nature of death        Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 6  Pg 55.txt
89        nature of the artist Chrysalis 7 No. 7  Article 6  Pg 55.txt
90        nature of this romance.      Chrysalis 8 No. 8  Article 1  Pg 17.txt
91        nature of my affection        Chrysalis 8 No. 8  Article 1  Pg 17.txt
92        DUPLICATE
93        nature of the self    Chrysalis 8 No. 8  Article 4  Pg 43.txt
94        nature of the healing        Chrysalis 8 No. 8  Article 4  Pg 43.txt
95        nature of the biological damage Chrysalis 9 No. 9  Article 2  Pg 15.txt
96        nature of that exchange.    Chrysalis 9 No. 9  Article 3   Pg  29.txt
97        nature of heterosexual      Chrysalis 9 No. 9 Table of Contents.txt



#41 “the nature of female reality” turns out to be from an art historical article on the women of surrealism Gloria Feman Orenstein “Leonora Carrington’s Visionary Art for the New Age” in which she argues that is key to redefining women’s place in western male-dominated art history “The study of the female imagination is perhaps the most crucial point of focus in contemporary feminist criticism in the arts, for it is that part of our total investigation into the nature of female reality that strives to understand and redefine women’s potentialities in the many as-yet-uncharted and multidimensional realms of female experience that are now unfolding.” While clearly Orenstein believes some “female experience” exists, she does not reduce it to a singular, instead referring to the “multidimensional realms”

No 50 In Susan Griffin’s article “Woman and Nature,” the full book version of which is often pointed to as a touchstone of cultural feminism, “nature of” appears three times, two of which use nature only one of which is “the nature of women” discussed in regards to her criticism of “patriarchy, [which] has always regarded  and  treated  women and nature in the same way as nature.

#52 an reference by Jane E. Caputi in The Glamour of Grammar to the “authentic nature of women” does seem to fit the cultural feminist paradigm in that it seems to imply a “singular” nature of women




if not fully essentialist what about apolitical Orenstein refers to “potentialities” while Caputi understands witchcraft as based on “weapon)s” used “by men” to oppress women, but whether that is “politically” engaged is open to debate

The most interesting and suggestive in terms of cultural feminism revolve around the five references in a collective review of the books of Honor Moore, Mary Daly, Susan Griffin and Alix Kates Shulman, in which “Moore is shaped by a patriarchal idea of the nature of women, by an idea alien to us.” Griffin  on Daly Well, your question really ought to be,”How does  one  not  experience  an idea?” Daly  shows  us  that  the  whole experience of seeing  and  being  in this culture is shaped  by a patriarchal idea of the nature of women.”  Review of Grffin by  Daly “As the author explains,  the first book,  “Matter,” begins by tracing a history of patriarchy’s judgments  about the nature of matter, or the nature of nature, and places these judgments side by side, chronologically, with men’s opinions about the nature of women”

In this review we might get closest to the idea of cultural feminism, unsurprisingly since these are the very authors most frequently “named” as cultural feminists.  But the question then becomes when placed in the quantitative context, why is the way nature was used by other authors less important in defining the “kind” of feminism spoken in Chrysalis.*  And if Chrysalisspeaks nature quantitatively more than OOB, but does it speak it qualitatively differently?   Next up close readings of the “nature of” in OOB that will hopefully shed some more light.

postscripts
* Another issue is does Chrysalis as art art/culture periodical speak nature in the same quantity/quality as other art world periodicals of the same era?  In any case, Chrysalis is largely interpreted as a cultrual feminist periodical following Echols’ description (284).  See Bruce Shulman, The Seventies: The Great Shift in American culture, Society, and Politics, 172; Denise Thompson, Reading Between the Lines: A Lesbian Feminist Critique of Feminist Accounts, 103; Kyle Stephan, Stanford Library Guide Feminism and Contemporary Art,” http://library.stanford.edu/guides/feminism-and-contemporary-art;

** “the body” provides an even more interesting example.  96 examples appear in the concordance, but 36 derive from a single article with a second article containing 10 instances, which create an over-impression of the usage of “the body” in the entire corpus.  


*** “of female” the second cluster (following the female) seemed more likely to yield results that were not “the female” as a subject.  More similar to that of “of nature” above, in 45 files, and of relatively even distribution, although spikes in article by  Mary Daly  Sparking: The Fire of Female Friendship. 


Could it be that the  association of certain words used by certain authors are being overweighed in the overall discourse of Chrysalis?



UPDATE, as nearly always at the suggestion of @heatherfro,

  1. yikes + 4 hours to do the data cleaning & writing, now finding all sorts of grammatical errors! Fixing now
maybe you should blog about all of it a day later!
Its just shy of 6AM and I’m sitting in the dark, writing by the glow of my screen, coffee cup nestled between my body and the couch cushion. Like a lot of faculty, this is how my DH work, blogging and tweeting often get done. Sandwiched in between the teaching (4/4 no repeat preps) commute (10+ hours a week) and “life” (offsprings, dogs, spouse, exercise, food, breathing, you know….). Sometimes I feel ashamed that I’ve put up a blog post that has misspelt words or less than flowing writing, but then I realize if I didn’t, I’d never put up anything. I’d never have dived in the very deep end of the ocean that is participating in the online community of DH.
I’m a full two academic generations older than many of the DH tweeps I know online, having been academic a full two decades now, so I suppose its my turn to give back a bit by sharing that hard-won wisdom, waiting for perfection is a luxury very few academics have. By all means if you’ve unlimited time and money, wait, polish, then publish. For everyone else, remember “done is good enough” and “the perfect is the enemy of the good,” two mantras that have gotten me few these last two decades.

Advertisements